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    唐朝有5位皇帝是死于服丹药中毒

    时间:2018-06-12 16:52来源:网络整理 作者: 佚名

      中国历史上死于服丹药中毒的皇帝有很多,他们本想希望通过服丹药而长生不老,结果反而因中毒而早死。如秦始皇嬴政、汉武帝刘彻、东晋哀帝司马丕、北魏道武帝拓跋珪、南唐烈祖李升、明仁宗洪熙帝朱高炽、明世宗嘉靖帝朱厚熜、明穆宗隆庆帝朱载垕、明光宗泰昌帝朱常洛、明熹宗天启帝朱由校、清世宗雍正帝爱新觉罗·胤禛等。尤其唐朝,从建立到灭亡的290年间,一共有21位皇帝,其中至少有5位是因为服用丹药中毒而丧命的,他们是太宗、宪宗、穆宗、武宗和宣宗。

      唐太宗(599—649,李世民)与秦始皇、汉武帝一样,都是中国皇帝中出类拔萃的人物。歌颂他英明伟大的着作,大概几火车也拉不完。但他到了晚年,在身患重病之下,也犯了与秦始皇、汉武帝一样的低级错误,即相信人可以长生不老。但与秦始皇、汉武帝不同的是,他并非去求神仙,而是让一个印度方士为自己炼制长生药,然后服用之。

      那是贞观二十二年(648),右卫率长史王玄策讨伐天竺国获胜,掳得一个名叫“那罗迩娑婆寐”的方士,此人自称有长生之术。王玄策大喜,认为这下讨好皇帝的机会来了,皇帝对天竺国的珍奇宝玩可能不感兴趣,但他不会不想长生不老。

      王玄策回到京城长安,即向太宗献上方士。那罗迩娑波寐说自己已200多岁,一番天花乱坠的胡扯,令太宗深信不移,对他敬若天神;当即把他安排在金飚门客馆下榻,让他炼制丹药,并命兵部尚书崔敦礼监主此事。随后又按罗迩娑波寐所开出的药单,派使者到全国各地采集怪药异石;国内采不到的药材,又派使者到婆罗门等国求取。

      据《新唐书·天竺国列传》记载,这个印度方士炼丹用的“畔茶法水”出于石臼之中,有石象人守护,水有7种颜色,或热或冷,能销熔草木金铁,人手探入水中,皮肉即腐烂,只能以骷髅去舀。炼丹用的药材之一,是一种奇怪的树叶,其树名叫“咀赖罗”,其叶如梨,生在深山的崖洞中,有巨虺把守洞穴,人不可进入。要取此叶,需以方头的箭矢射击树枝,树叶落下来被群鸟衔去,需再射,方可得之。其它炼丹的材料取之亦同样艰难奇诡。又有史籍记载,罗迩娑波寐炼这种丹药,主要用了水银、硫磺、砒霜等物。

      数月之后,长生药炼成。太宗1年前患风疾症,大概只是神经性头痛之类;吃了此药后,病情不但未见好转,反而加重。太宗又遵罗迩娑波寐之嘱,加大服用剂量,结果便严重中毒,于次年五月暴亡,年仅51岁,算是英年早逝了,要不还可以干出多少丰功伟绩来。

      唐太宗因服长生药而死,却并未引起其儿孙警醒,继他之后,仍有不少皇帝企图靠服丹药以求长生。

      唐宪宗(778—820,李纯)号称唐朝中兴之主,比起那些昏君庸主来还是有一番作为的。但他后来自以为功绩已着,天下太平,便渐渐骄侈起来,不但大兴土木,建造宫室楼宇;而且笃信佛教,欲求长生,曾下诏遍求天下方士,搜寻偏方,使其实现长生不老的宏愿。

      诏书一下,朝臣中便有人积极响应,江湖骗子接踵而来。宰相皇甫铁和金吾将军李道古等人,先后向宪宗推荐方士柳泌与和尚大通,说这两人会制不死药。柳泌自称已400岁,并胡说“天台山是神仙聚集之地,多灵草,臣虽知之,力不能致,如能做那里的长官,或许可以得之”。大通和尚也自吹神通广大,说自己已 150岁。又有方士田元佐,自称有化瓦砾为黄金的秘方。宪宗不爱黄金,只对长生不老感兴趣,便授柳泌为台州刺史,并赐服金紫。谏官上奏说:“先帝也有宠方士者,但未使其做地方官。”宪宗作色道:“烦一州之力而能为人主致长生,又有何吝惜封他官职。”于是群臣均不敢再谏。

      柳泌一到台州,即驱使当地官民到深山采药,稍有怠慢即遭鞭笞,折腾了1年多却一无所获。柳泌恐骗不过皇帝,即举家逃往深山,被浙东观察使抓获,解往京师。宪宗一直心存幻想,不但未治他的罪,而且封他为翰林院待诏,让他居兴唐观精心炼制长生药。柳泌胡乱捣鼓了一通,声称药已炼成。宪宗大喜,立即服用;但不久便烦躁口渴,身体异常。起居舍人裴潾上疏切谏,说方士都是为利而来,他们炼制的金石之药只可疗疾,不可常食,更不可能使人长生;并提出,炼出的药,要让炼药的方士和推荐他们的人先服1年,以考其真伪。裴潾这番话全是为皇帝着想,不料宪宗竟大发雷霆,将他贬为江陵令。

      宪宗服用柳泌的长生药后,因中毒而数月不能上朝;性情日益暴躁,身边宦官往往无端获罪被杀,闹得人人自危。元和十五年(820)正月,内常侍陈弘志与观军容使王守澄合谋,将年仅43岁的宪宗杀死于中和殿里,对外却宣称皇帝是因药性发作而暴死。即使不被害死,他也活不了多久。

      宪宗被宦官宰掉之后,其第三子李恒即位,是为唐穆宗(795—824)。穆宗荒淫奢侈,终日沉湎酒色,又好游猎,宴乐、赏赐无度,对朝政漠不关心。他即位之后,虽然处死了方士柳泌等人,但后来自己又受方士诱惑,欲求长生,服起丹药来。处士张皋上疏规劝,说先帝信方士的妄言,服药致疾,陛下不是不知,岂能蹈其覆辙?穆宗嘴上称赞张皋说得好,但仍照服不误,致使身体更加虚弱。长庆二年(822)十一月,穆宗与宦官击球,一个宦官不慎从马上摔下,穆宗也因此受惊得病,卧床不起。但他仍把丹药当作救命稻草,大吃特吃,勉强支持了1年多,终于因服丹药过度,一命呜呼,年仅30岁。

      唐武宗(814—846,李炎),是唐穆宗第五子。会昌五年(845),他曾下诏陈佛教之弊,令毁全国寺院,僧尼还俗者达26万余人,史称“会昌灭佛”。但这个不信佛的皇帝,却笃信道教。早在下诏灭佛的前两年,他就下令在宫禁中修建望仙楼,幻想在楼上与神仙相会。他在诏令灭佛的同时,又召道士赵归真等81人来朝,让他们讲解道术,并在宫中建金录道场,亲临九天坛接受法录。后又封衡山道士刘玄清为银青光禄大夫、崇文馆学士,赐号“广成先生”,与赵归真同住宫内,撰修法录。宰相李德裕劝他勿被方士所惑,他却说“我对归真很了解,他过去没什么大过。我召见他,不过是和他谈养生术而已”。他相信赵归真等道士服丹药可以长生不老的鬼话,令他们加紧炼制仙丹。又命在南郊建望仙台,令神策军重修宫中的望仙楼与郎舍539间,准备以后服了仙丹后与神仙相会。

      哪知武宗在服了赵、刘等人炼出的丹药后,竟和他的爷爷一样,变得性情躁急,喜怒无常,到后来中毒太深,面容枯槁,临死前十余天口不能言,年仅33岁便到爷爷、父亲那里报到去了。

      唐宣宗(810—859,李忱),是宪宗第十三子,和武宗是同父异母兄弟。他在治国方面,有老祖宗唐太宗的遗风,时称“小太宗”。他和老哥武宗对着干,一上台便立即杖杀和流放用金丹毒害武宗的道士赵、刘等人;又下诏重兴佛教,令凡于武宗朝所毁寺宇一律重建。但有一点他与老哥相同,那便是服丹药以求长生。起初,他令道士配制长生药;而道士知长生药都是骗人的勾当,宪宗、武宗均因服药或病或死,朝野皆知,若再把今上毒死,自己小命难保,便开出一个怪方:制长生药需李子衣、桃毛、龟毛、兔角、生鸡膜各10斤。这样的材料,当然无法配齐。宣宗知道士借故推托,又令人遍访名医。结果有个叫李玄通的人,得到宣宗宠信,以70万钱的高薪聘入宫中,任其为太医,并命其配制长生药。李玄通不负帝命,与道士虞紫芝、山人王乐三捣鼓两捣鼓,终于把“仙药”捣鼓了出来。哪知宣宗在服药后,背上竟生出毒疮。大中十三年(859)八月,宣宗背上的毒疮恶化,以致不能上朝,没几天便带着金丹之毒永别了人世,年仅50岁。

      除了以上这5位,还有几位唐朝皇帝也曾迷恋丹药。唐高宗曾于开耀二年(682)服食丹药;武则天晚年服用过道士胡慧超的丹药;唐玄宗也曾命道士在嵩阳观炼丹,“安史之乱”后退为太上皇了仍念念不忘金灶烧炼丹药之事;晚唐的文宗也曾服用过丹药,不过他在服食了郑注炼制的金丹之后,病情还有所好转,不知是真是假。

      唐朝皇帝前仆后继地迷恋丹药,除了追求长生不老之外,还有一个重要原因是为了治病。李唐皇族有一种遗传病叫“风疾”。据史籍明确记载,患此病症者,有高祖、太宗、高宗、顺宗、穆宗、文宗、宣宗等人。“风疾”即现在所说的中风,发病急骤,死亡率高。高宗时期,皇后武则天之所以能掌握朝政,就是因为高宗患有风疾,长期风眩头重、目不能视,难以操持政务,而让她钻了空子。

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